< Previous Chapter | Next Chapter >
67 Chapter 4. Text Basics
In this chapter, youll learn
In this chapter, we begin looking at the nuts and bolts of word processing in Nisus Writer. While I assume that you are familiar with Macintosh conventions, I will nevertheless cover most of Nisus Writers basic features here in some detail. One reason for this is that there are a lot of subtleties to the interface that may escape you if you dont know where to look. But more importantly, I want to make sure you have a solid foundation in the ins and outs of working with Nisus Writers controlsyoull appreciate it a few chapters from now when we move on to more advanced features.
68 In a distinct departure from the organization of Nisus Writers documentation, I have deliberately left out some information from this chapternamely, the use of named rulers and user-defined styles (which I return to in Chapter 10), and WorldScript-specific features (covered in Chapter 13). While all of these arguably have to do with text editing, they presume knowledge of more basic ways of doing things, and I dont want to put the cart before the horse. You can create quite complex documents using the features described in this chapter, and once youve mastered them, youll be ready for the added convenience and power that the more advanced features provide.
The Nisus Writer Working Environment
Before we can do anything else, we need to look at Nisus Writers working environment. In this section well explore Nisus Writers windows, controls, and on-line help features.
The Document Window
When you open a document or create a new one (by choosing
New from the File menu), youll see a window like the one in Figure 4.1. This is your document window (or Document View), where the bulk of your text entry and editing will take place. There are some controls on the perimeter of the window with which youll want to be familiar. (Ill assume that you already know how to use the title bar, scroll bars, and close, zoom, and resize boxes.)
Figure 4.1. A document window (also referred to as Document View).
The buttons on the Vertical Button Bar give you access to text, graphics, sound, and layout controls. The top button
Figure 4.2. The Info Bar.
The memory indicator is not always very reliable. For the gritty details on how Nisus Writer handles memory (and what this indicator really means), see Chapter 9.
70 The next button
You can copy and paste text between panes of a split window, but you cant drag and drop text from one pane to another.
The Horizontal Button Bar controls the display of various regions of your document and formatting indicators. Most of these buttons will be discussed shortly in connection with the features they control, but Ill mention a couple of them here. The Display Vertical Ruler button
Figure 4.3.A window split both horizontally and vertically using the Split Screen Bars.
Menus and Dialog Boxes
There are some general facts you should know about Nisus Writers menus and dialog boxes. First, be aware that many of the menu commands change when one or more modifier keys (
Option) are pressed. For example,
Append Copy when the
Shift key is pressed,
Copy to Find when the
Option key is pressed, and
Copy to Replace when both
Option are pressed. Unlike most other programs, Nisus Writers menus change dynamicallyyou can see the menus change before your eyes when you press modifier keys while the menu is pulled down. Some of the submenus also change when modifier keys are pressed, but changes on submenus dont update dynamically; you have to move the mouse off the submenu, press the modifier key(s), and pull down the menu again to see the change.
Nisus Writer now has a separate menu item for each of the commands that formerly required a modifier key to make it visible. This increased the number of submenus, but it was an important step in revealing features that many users felt were hiddenwho would think of trying all those modifier combinations to find some obscure menu command?
The second thing you should know is that any command on any menu in Nisus Writer can be activated from the keyboard. Only a few commands have predefined shortcuts, but you can add as many as you like using the
command on the Preferences submenu of the File menu. Shortcuts can have up to three characters (plus modifier keys), so you could, for example, choose
Show Catalog by pressing
Command-C-A-T. Well explore all the options for keyboard shortcuts in Chapter 9; for a complete list of the predefined shortcuts, see Appendix A.
In addition to menu commands, almost every radio button, checkbox, and control button in Nisus Writer dialog boxes can be controlled from the keyboard. When a dialog box is visible (such as the
Define Styles dialog box in Figure 4.4) you can press the
Command key to display all the shortcuts next to the controls they activate. Although the mouse is great for some tasks, for experienced users its usually a lot quicker and easier to activate commands from the keyboard.
Figure 4.4. The Define Styles dialog box as it appears when the
Command key is pressed. Any button or checkbox can be activated from the keyboard.
Nisus Writer offers some unique shortcuts for controlling your windows (see Appendix A for a complete list). Normally, clicking the zoom box of a window will expand it to show the entire width of your text, and clicking a second time returns it to its previous size. But if you press
Shift while clicking the zoom box, the window will expand to fill your screenif you have only one document open. If you have two or more documents open, shift-clicking the zoom box will place the top two windows side by side on your screen. And if you press and hold the
Command key, you can move, resize, or scroll an inactive window without bringing it to the front.
You can also zoom a window by double-clicking its title bar. (This will not work, however, if your WindowShade control panel is set to activate with two clicks.)
The Amazing Option Key
Option key does some very cool things. The general rule is that holding the
Option key applies whatever action you choose to all open windows. For example, clicking the close box closes a window; option-clicking the close box closes all your windows. Or lets say you have several documents open that all need to be saved. When you quit Nisus Writer, youll see a dialog box asking if you want to save your first file. You click 73
OK, then the same dialog box appears asking if you want to save your second file. If you press option while clicking
OK, it will automatically answer OK to all the subsequent dialog boxes. But waittheres more! If you have some text selected in each of several windows, and hold the
Option key while choosing a font, size, or style, youll see the dialog box shown in Figure 4.5. In other words, you can apply nearly any action to all open files at once by pressing the
Figure 4.5. This dialog box appears when you hold down the
Option key while making a formatting change (and have text selected in more than one document). Clicking
Yes will apply the change to the selected text in all open documents.
The Windows Menu
The Windows submenu of the Tools menu (Figure 4.6) contains more options for controlling your windows. If you have several windows open, choose
Send Back (or press
Command-=) to send the front window to the very back.
Toggle Front Two will move the front window back just one layer. If you want to compare the contents of two windows side by side, choose
Synchronized Scrolling. The synchronized scrolling icon
In Nisus Writer 5, the Windows menu was promoted to be a full menu, rather than a hidden submenu. To save menubar space, an icon was used instead of the word Windows. In addition, more tiling commands were added (with explanatory icons) to expand Nisus Writers window management capabilities.
Figure 4.6. The Windows menu.
Stack command arranges all your open windows so that some part of each window is visiblein most cases, the title bar. This makes it easy to switch among windows using the mouse. Or choose
Tile to shrink all your open windows and arrange them so that each window is showing in its entirety on the screen.
Tile Two Windows places the top two windows side by side, just like shift-clicking the zoom box. At the bottom of the Windows menu is a list of all the open windows in Nisus Writer. To switch to another window, choose its name from the menu.
For quick access to the Windows menu, press the Command key while clicking on the title bar of any window.
One final note about windows. When you save a document, your windows size and location on the screen are also savedand so is the location of your insertion point 74 and any selection(s) you may have active. This means that when you open a document, youll always go back to exactly where you left off.
Floating Tool Bars
Although I just mentioned how easy it is to control all of Nisus Writers functions from the keyboard, some people prefer to use the mouse as much as possible. Still, it can be tedious to scroll through menus, particularly menus as long and complex as Nisus Writers. To address this problem, Nisus Writer includes a set of floating tool bars. A floating tool bar (see Figure 4.7) is a palette of buttons that floats above your other windows. You can position tool bars anywhere on your screen, and you can use them to activate many menu commands with a single click.
Figure 4.7.The Text Tools floating tool bar.
75 The nine built-in tool bars are listed in the Floating Tool Bar submenu of the Tools menu (Figure 4.8). To display a tool bar, choose it from this menu. Tool bars appear at the center of your screen when first activated, but you can move them to a new location by clicking and dragging the grab bar at the top. Clicking the zoom box on the grab bar will switch the orientation of the tool bar from horizontal to vertical and back. To hide a tool bar, click the close box on its grab bar (or choose the tool bars name again from the menu). Tool bars will remember their location and orientation the next time you use them. To hide all displayed tool bars at once, choose
Floating Tool Bars from the Display submenu of the Tools menu. When this option is checked, all selected tool bars are displayed; when it is unchecked, they remain hidden.
Figure 4.8.The Floating Tool Bar menu.
In case youre wondering when Im going to tell you what each button on the tool bars is for, Im not. Most of the icons are self-explanatory, and if you have any doubts, you can turn on balloon help and point at the button in question. Each button corresponds to a command on some menu. If a menu item is dimmed (not applicable in a certain context), 76 then the corresponding button on a tool bar will be dimmed. An X through a button means that the menu command its supposed to activate isnt present on any menu. (You might get an X-ed icon if, for example you display the Mail tool bar and you dont have PowerTalk installed.)
Depending on the configuration of your Mac, you may encounter a situation in which the balloon help for a tool bar button isnt accurateit may be off by one or two icons. This anomaly is due to limitations in the way balloon help is designed, and it may never go away. Once youve tried a button, though, its usually easy to remember what the icon means.
Nisus Writer doesnt give you an easy way to customize tool bars, so Ive created some new ones for you. The new tool bars and instructions for installing them are found on the enclosed CD-ROM.
Nisus Writer contains two different sources of on-line help. While these do not give very thorough details (and are of course no substitute for this book!), they can be helpful for quick reminders. Balloon help is activated by choosing
Show Balloons from the Guide (or Help) menu. When you point at a button, menu item, or other object, a balloon will appear to tell you its function. Balloon help is especially useful for learning the functions of the buttons on floating tool bars. Unfortunately, balloon help is not available within the Nisus Table Tool. The other on-line help feature is called e-help. Its a separate window that contains a searchable summary of commands and functions, plus brief directions for performing various tasks. To activate e-help, choose
Nisus Writer Help
from the Guide menu. Ironically, theres no balloon help available to tell you the functions of the controls in the e-help window! Figure 4.9 shows what each control is for. Using e-help is straightforward: click a topic for more information on it. Underlined terms are hyperlinked to other reference pagesclick an underlined term for more information on it. To search for help on a particular word, click the
Search button, type in the word you want to find, and click
Find for a list of topics that contain that word.
Figure 4.9. The e-help window.
The latest versions of Nisus Writer no longer use the proprietary e-help engine, but rather rely on the more conventional Apple Guide.
Entering, Selecting, and Editing Text
Its time to talk about the one activity youll be doing more than anything else in Nisus Writer: typing. Nisus Writer is first and foremost a tool for writing, and there are a lot of 77 things the program can do at this very basic level to make your writing experience more enjoyable. Here we look at the basic ways of entering, selecting, and editing text in your document.
The insertion point
As you type, your text automatically wraps at the end of every line. Pressing the
Return key inserts a return character (or carriage return) into your document to begin a new paragraph. If you want to begin a new line without beginning a new paragraph, you can insert a line break (or line feed) character by pressing
Shift-Enter. To insert a nonbreaking space between words (to prevent line wrap from occurring), press
Option-Spacebar. Nisus Writer paginates your document automatically as you type. If you want to force a page break to occur at some other point in your document, place your insertion point there and choose
Page Break from the Insert menu. To display normally invisible formatting characters like returns, 78 line breaks, and forced page breaks, click the
Display Attributes button
As in all Macintosh applications, the paradigm followed in Nisus Writer for making changes is first to select (or highlight) the text or other elements you want to change, then to perform a command by choosing something from a menu, clicking a button, or pressing a key combination. The usual way to select text is to click and drag across a block of text to highlight it. If you position the cursor over a word and double-click the mouse, the whole word will be selected. Likewise, if you triple-click, you can select an entire sentence. Clicking four times selects an entire paragraph, and clicking five times selects the entire document. You can also select the entire document by choosing
Select All from the Edit menu or by pressing
Command-A. To select a large range of text, you can also position your insertion point at one end of the range, then press
Shift and click at the other end. Everything between the two points will be selected. To deselect the text youve selected, simply click once anywhere outside the selection. To deselect only part of your selection, hold the
Shift key while clicking and dragging over the portion you want to deselect.
A little-known yet very useful fact about selectingin almost any Mac applicationis that if you double-click and then (without releasing the mouse button) drag in either direction, you can extend your selection in word-sized chunks. Triple- and quadruple-clicking and dragging have the same effect for sentences and paragraphs, respectively.
You can also use the keyboard to select text or to extend a selection you made with the mouse. (Refer to Appendix A for a complete list of keyboard shortcuts.) Holding down the
Shift key while moving the cursor with the keyboard causes the text to be selected as the insertion point moves. For example, to move forward by one word, press
Option-right arrow; to select the next word, press
Shift-Option-right arrow. Once youve made a selection, you can extend it using the same shortcuts. For example, if youve selected a word and you want to add the word on its left to your selection, press
Shift-Option-left arrow. There are no keyboard shortcuts for shortening a selection.
Ever wish you could move the cursor or make selections from the keyboard one sentence at a time? Macros that allow you to do just that are included on the enclosed CD-ROM.
79 Noncontiguous and Vertical Selection
One of Nisus Writers most unique features is called noncontiguous selection. This means that you can select any number of text blocksa word here, a sentence there, a few characters someplace elseall at the same time, without selecting the material between them. To select text noncontiguously, start by selecting the first block of text in the normal way. Then hold down the
Option keys and make another selection. (You can, of course, double-, triple-, or quadruple-click the additional selections, with or without dragging, just as you can the first one.) You can select as many blocks of text noncontiguously as you like, but you must hold down
Option while clicking in your document window. If you click without holding the modifier keys down, everything will be deselected.
A companion feature to noncontiguous selection is vertical selection. Vertical selection allows you to select a rectangular column of textvery handy when making changes to tab-separated tables, lists, and so on. To select a vertical column of text, hold down the
Option key while you click and drag with the mouse. The pointer will change
When you make a vertical selection, any character that is at least 50% enclosed in the dotted rectangle is selected. Thus, the vertical selection may have ragged edges if it does not match up exactly with character boundaries.
Once your text is selected, you can replace it, delete it, move it, or change it in some way. To replace text youve selected with new text, you can simply start typing, and the new text will replace the old. To remove selected text from your document, press the
Delete key or choose
Clear from the Edit menu. If you choose
Cut from the Edit menu instead of
Clear (or pressing
Delete), your text will be removed from your document but stored temporarily on your Clipboardfrom which you can paste to another spot in your document (or in another document). Choosing
Copy places a copy of the selected text on your Clipboard without removing it from 80 the document.
Paste places a copy of whatever is on the Clipboard at the current insertion point.
When you clear or delete your text, it is removed without being placed on the Clipboard. If you delete text and then realize you need a copy of it, simply choose Copy with nothing selected and the last thing you deleted will be placed on your Clipboard.
Nisus Writer has a preference called Intelligent Cut and Paste, which ensures that words pasted into another part of your document have the right amount of space before and after them. (You can enable/disable this option by choosing
from the Preferences submenu of the File menu.) To use Intelligent Cut and Paste, select a word by double-clicking (or multiple words by double-clicking-and-dragging).
Copy the text and
Paste it somewhere else. Nisus Writer automatically inserts a space before and/or after the text if needed to separate it from the text in its new location. Intelligent Cut and Paste also works with drag-and-drop (see below).
Other Editing Controls
The Edit menu has some additional commands worth mentioning. First is the Convert submenu (see Figure 4.10). The first two commands on this menu,
lowercase, allow you to change the selected text to all uppercase or all lowercase. When you choose these commands, Nisus Writer doesnt merely apply a styleit changes the ASCII value of each character. The
lowercase command is a great timesaver if you accidentally type a sentence with the
Caps Lock key down!
Capitalize will capitalize the first letter of each selected word; other letters will not be affected.
Toggle Case converts all capital letters to lowercase and vice-versa.
Figure 4.10. The Convert menu.
Tab Right inserts a tab character at the beginning of the paragraph containing the selected text;
Tab Left removes a tab character from the beginning of the paragraph. Choosing
Sort Paragraphs will rearrange all selected paragraphs in alphabetical order. Some types of computer systems dont understand the Macintoshs method of wrapping text, and if your file will be used on such a system, it may be very difficult to read. To avoid this problem, select your text and choose
Break Lines to insert a hard return at the end of every line. On the other hand, if you download a file from a mainframe or IBM-compatible computer, you may find your text littered with garbage characters that make it hard to read. Select your text 81 and choose
Remove Gremlins to delete all unprintable upper-ASCII characters and extraneous trailing spaces.
Any action you perform in Nisus Writer can be undone. Just choose
Undo from the Edit menu (or press
Command-Z). To redo what you just undid, choose
Redo. However, you are not limited to undoing and redoing just one activityyou can undo the last 32,767 things you did! This is referred to as unlimited undos, a fair statement considering how inconceivable it is that someone would actually find this a limitation! (As a practical matter, you can set the maximum number of undos to a lower number in the Editing Preferences dialog boxthe preset value is 300.) To undo a series of actions, choose
Undo repeatedly. A brief description of the last command will appear on the menu along with the current number of undoable actions (as in
Undo Replace All 32). Each action you perform is stored in an undo list, which is kept in memory until you close your document (or manually clear the list).
The keyboard equivalent for Undo is Command-Z. To redo an activity immediately after undoing it, press Command-Z again. If you want to keep undoing (instead of toggling between undo and redo), press Command-Shift-Z for each subsequent undo you perform. Likewise, if you want to redo a series of activities, press Command-Z the first time, and Command-Shift-Z for each subsequent redo. (You can always check the shortcut listed on the Edit menu if you forget what the correct keystroke is!)
82 Drag and Drop
Nisus Writer allows text and graphics to be moved or copied within a document just by clicking and dragging. To use drag and drop, first make a selection in your document. Then position your pointer over the selection, press the
Control key, and click and drag to move it to a new location. Your pointer will change to a caret
Option key as well as the
Control key while dragging. (To set drag and drop to function without requiring that you press
Drag & Drop Requires Control Key in the Editing Preferences dialog box.) Since Nisus Writer does not yet support Apples Drag Manager, you cannot drag and drop text between windows or applications.
Macintosh fonts generally contain a complete set of accented characters (é, à, ô, etc.) and special symbols (®, ¶, , , etc.). To find out which keys to press to insert these characters in your document, choose Apples
Key Caps desk accessory from the Apple menu. It will display a diagram showing the location of each character on the keyboard; the diagram changes when you press a modifier key. Another way of accessing special characters is to choose
from the Editing Tools submenu of the Tools menu. The Character Table (Figure 4.11) lists each character in the font youve chosen, along with its ASCII and hexadecimal values. To insert a character from the Character Table into your document, double-click it and it will appear at your insertion point. To place a character from the Character Table onto the Clipboard, choose
Copy. You can change the font that the Character Table uses by choosing a new font from the Font menu while the Character Table is the frontmost window.
Figure 4.11. The Character Table window.
The characters used to represent spaces, tabs, returns, and other formatting characters are normally invisible. If youd like to see where they fall in your text, click the
Display Attributes button
Figure 4.12.Text with formatting characters visible.
84 If you click and hold the pointer on this button, it becomes a pop-up menu (Figure 4.13) that lets you choose other display options. Currently selected options are indicated by a check mark.
Figure 4.13. The Display Attributes pop-up menu.
Space, Tab, & ¶toggles display of hidden characters (just like clicking the
Line Numbersdisplays each line number in the margin to the left of your text. (Line numbers are printed along with your text.) To change line numbering settings, choose
Line Number Optionsfrom the Display submenu of the Tools menu. The dialog box shown in Figure 4.14 allows you to choose the font, size, and style of the numbers; whether or not they restart on every page; the frequency and spacing of line numbers; and whether zero, one, or two vertical bars separate the numbers from your text.
Figure 4.14. The Line Number Options dialog box.
Text Markstoggles the display of dotted lines around text that has been marked as a bookmark (using the
Markcommand), a table of contents or index entry, or as
Keep on Same Pageor
Keep on Same Lineusing the Format submenu of the Style menu.
Invisible Textis text with the style Invisible applied. Invisible text is not normally displayed or printed, but you can display it by choosing this command.
Pagination, if checked, will display page-break indicators at every point in your document where the page will break when printed. If your document will not be printed, you may want to turn off pagination to hide the page-break indicators. When pagination is off, headers, footers, and footnotes are also hidden.
Graphics as Xallows you to speed up scrolling and display of your document by showing each graphic as a white box with an X through it. This does not alter your graphics in any way; it only affects the appearance of the display.
As PostScript®determines how graphic effects are shown on-screen. Nisus Writer is capable of producing transparent, inverted, and blended graphic effects (see Chapter 5), but these do not print out on PostScript printers. To see your document as it will be printed on a PostScript printer, make sure this option is checked.
Graphic Anchorsare a visual indication of whether your graphics are anchored to the page or to a paragraph (see Chapter 5 for details).
Display Attributes button brings up the Display Attributes dialog box (Figure 4.15), which can also be shown by choosing
from the Display submenu of the Tools menu. This dialog box enables you to choose all your display options at once instead of choosing each individually from the pop-up menu.
Figure 4.15. The Display Attributes dialog box.
Moving Around Your Document
In addition to the standard scrolling methods, Nisus Writer offers some unique navigation shortcuts. If you press
Option while clicking on a scroll bar or scroll arrow, it will scroll in the reverse direction. Pressing
Command while clicking the scroll bar will scroll your document up or down one physical page at a time (whereas clicking without the
Command key scrolls one screenful at a time). To scroll in a background (inactive) window, hold the
Command key down while clicking on the scroll bar or scroll arrow of that window. (A good use for this is scrolling in your document while the Find/Replace or Spelling Checker window is in the front.) Maximum scrolling speed is set in the Scrolling Preferences dialog box (which well discuss in Chapter 9).
If you have a lot of graphics in your document, they may be cached to disk and loaded into memory only when they need to be displayed. This can produce pauses when you scroll through your document while you wait for the graphics to load. To prevent cached graphics from loading, hold the Command key as you scroll.
To move to a particular page or line number, choose
from the Jump To submenu of the Tools menu and enter the page or line number you want to reach. To jump to a bookmark youve defined (see Chapter 10), choose its name from the Jump To submenu. If you want to select all the text between the current insertion point and the bookmark, hold the
Shift key while choosing the marker name. Other navigation shortcuts are found in Appendix A.
If you have scrolled so that your insertion point is no longer visible and youd like to jump to its location in your document quickly, simply press the Enter key.
87 Character Formatting
Each character in your document has font, size, and style attributes that contribute to its overall appearance. In this section we look at the commands that shape individual characters. To apply character formatting, select some text. It can be as little as a single character or as much as your whole document. Then choose a command from the Font, Size, or Style menu.
You can set a default font, size, and style for your new documents (as well as other default settings) by creating a stationery document with the desired settings, naming it Nisus New File, and placing it in your Nisus Writer folder. For further instructions, see Chapter 9.
A font in Macintosh terminology is actually a typefacea set of characters that share a common design. Helvetica, Times, and Palatino are examples of fonts. The Font menu contains all the fonts installed in your System (whether TrueType, PostScript, or bitmap). To change the font of a region of text, select it and choose the font name you want to apply to it from the Font menu. If you choose a font name with no text selected, whatever you type at the current insertion point will be displayed in that font. Only one font at a time can apply to any given character.
Font names are normally displayed on the Font menu in Chicago, the standard System font. To see fonts in their own typefaces, press the
Command key while you pull down the Font menu (Figure 4.16). If the document youre working on uses any fonts that are not currently installed in your System, those font names will appear in italic at the bottom of the menu. You can apply such fonts to other text in your document, but they will be displayed and printed in Geneva until the original fonts are available. The last item on the Font menu,
Any Font, is used in Find/Replace expressions, glossaries, and macros to indicate text in an unspecified font. This command is normally dimmed while your document window is active.
Figure 4.16. The Font menu as displayed when the
Option key is pressed.
When you apply the command Any Font to text in a Find/Replace expression, glossary, or macro, it looks like Chicago on the screen, but it also includes some special characters to represent modifier and arrow keys. If you want to display text in your document using the special Any Font font, enclose your text in chevrons (« [Option-\] and » [Option-Shift-\]). Select the entire range of text, including the chevrons, and the Any Font command will become active on the Font menu. After applying the font, you can delete the chevrons.
The Size menu lets you determine the point size of your characters. A point in Macintosh terms is 1/72 of an inch. So a 12-point font will be approximately one-sixth of an inch high. The exact height will vary according to the design of the font. To apply one of the preset sizes (9, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 72) to your text, select one or more characters and choose the size you want from the Size menu. To apply a size that is not on the menu, choose
. A dialog box will ask you to type in a size; enter any whole number from 1 to 255. If you choose a size without having made a selection, the size you pick will be used for whatever you type at the current insertion point. To increase or decrease the size of your selected text one point at a time, choose
Decrease from the Size menu. Pressing the
Shift key will change these two commands to
, which allows you to enter the number of points by which the size should be increased or decreased. The
Any Size command, as with the
Any Font command, is used only in certain windows.
In Nisus Writer, the term style refers to any embellishment to a font, such as bold, italic, or underline. It also includes character attributes like color and tracking. Nisus Writers style commands are found on the Style menu (Figure 4.17) and its submenus. To apply a style, select some text and choose a style command. A style chosen while nothing is selected will apply to whatever you type next at the insertion point.
Figure 4.17. The Style menu (also showing the More Styles submenu).
The Style Menu
On the main Style menu, youll see the familiar commands
Underline. There are also commands for
Subscript actually does two thingsit reduces the selected characters to 60% of their original size, and it raises (or lowers) them on the line. There is no direct way to change the percentage of reduction; if you want superscripted or subscripted characters to be smaller or larger, you must select 90 them and increase or decrease the size manually until you get the desired result. The command
Plain Text will remove from the selected text any other styles that have been applied to it (but it will not affect the color). And
+ Any Styles is analogous to the
Any Font and
Any Size options we just discussedit normally works only in certain contexts.
The More Styles submenu (refer to Figure 4.17) contains additional character styles. Most of these are self-explanatory, but I will point out a few things that are not obvious.
Condensedecreases the width of each selected character;
Expandincreases the width. Since these are complementary functions, they cannot both be chosen at the same time.
Word Underlinewill underline only the visible characters in the selection; spaces and tabs will not be underlined.
Subscript 2, your characters will be reduced to 60% of the superscript/subscript size, and will be placed slightly higher or lower on the line. Applying
Superscript 2automatically applies
Subscript 2automatically applies
Subscript. While you cannot combine superscript and subscript, you can combine Superscript with Subscript 2 or Subscript with Superscript 2 if you wish.
Invertcommand makes the text white and the background black (or whatever color has been selected for the text).
All Capsto text displays and prints it using uppercase letters, without changing the ASCII value of the characters (unlike the Convert commands on the Edit menu).
Small Capswill cause lowercase letters to display and print as though they were capital letters at a smaller point size (again, without changing their ASCII values).
Boxstyle will put a box around any contiguous string of characters on a line (it cannot be used to put a single border around an entire paragraph).
The Color submenu lists the eight colors that can be applied to text on the text layer:
White. Text will print in these colors if you use a color printer; if your printer only supports grayscale printing, a suitably dense shade of gray will be substituted for each of the colors. As you might have guessed by now,
Any Color is only applicable in certain contexts and is not normally available in your document window.
You can now choose any color in the spectrum; if the one you want isnt on the menu, you can use any Apple color picker to select your own. In addition, you can now set the background color of your page to something other than white.
The Format menu contains commands for controlling the way text is formatted. These are considered style attributes, even though they dont really affect the appearance of individual characters.
Keep on Same Lineand
Keep on Same Pageprevent text from breaking in unwanted places. If you have a word or phrase that must always go on a single line, select it and choose
Keep on Same Line. Hyphenation will not apply to it, and even spaces within the selected region will not cause the line to wrap. Similarly, to make sure two or more lines (or portions of lines) dont separate from each other across a page break, select them and choose
Keep on Same Page.
Ignore Spellingis a special style you can apply to a word that will make the spelling checker overlook it. If you have names, abbreviations, or technical or foreign terms that you want to avoid worrying about when you check your spelling, apply this style to them.
Invisibleis a truly remarkable style. Whatever text you apply it to will seemingly disappear from your document and will not be displayed or printed. However, you can still view (and edit) it at any time by choosing
Invisible Textfrom the Display Attributes menu. Invisible text is great for writing notes to yourself that will remain part of your text but not show up on paper. Invisible text can also be seen by your spelling checker, Find/Replace, and Word Count, even when it is not displayed in your document window! Unlike the way other styles work, you cannot simply choose
Invisibleand start typing invisible text; you must type some text first and then apply the Invisible style.
esreveR. Thats Reversein reverse! This command reverses the order of letters in any selection (the selection must be shorter than a line). It was designed for converting Hebrew text from old-style left-to-right fonts to WorldScript-savvy right-to-left fonts.
Glosslets you add an explanation or translation above a block of text. It was designed for Japanese text, and well discuss it in Chapter 13 when we talk about WorldScript.
Set Trackinglets you adjust the horizontal space occupied by the selected characters. By reducing the tracking amount, you bring letters closer; by increasing it, you spread out your text. Figure 4.18 shows how tracking works. The right edge of the block is moved outward when a positive tracking value is entered, and inward when a negative value is entered. The shape and size of the character itself does not change.
Nisus Writer does not have a Keep with Next style or conventional widow and orphan control. The Keep on Same Page style must be applied to any range of text you want to prevent from breaking across pages or columns. Fortunately, this attribute can be made part of a defined style (see Chapter 10).
Figure 4.18. The effects of tracking on a single character. Notice the size of the selected text block for the letter A with positive tracking (top) and negative tracking (bottom).
To set tracking, select one or more characters, choose
Set Tracking (Figure 4.19), and enter a positive or negative value in points. The maximum resolution of tracking is 1/16 (0.0625) of a point. Check
Proportional to Font Size if you are applying tracking to text that contains multiple font sizes. Enter the tracking value for the first character, and the remaining characters will be tracked proportionately based on their size.
Track Wider and
Track Narrower increase or decrease tracking one point at a time. If you press the
Option key, these commands become
Wider by 1/4 and
Narrower by 1/4 (meaning 1/4 of a 93 point); press
Command to make them
Wider by 1/16 and
Narrower by 1/16. Or press
Shift to make the choices
, allowing you to enter the number of points by which the tracking will be increased or decreased.
Figure 4.19. The Tracking dialog box.
A paragraph in Nisus Writer is any number of characters followed by a return character (a return character by itself does not count as a paragraph). The changes you can make to paragraph formatting include the left and right line wrap, the first line indent/outdent, tab stops, justification, line spacing, and paragraph spacing. All these settings are made using the Text Bar (Figure 4.20), which you can display (if its not already showing) by clicking the
Display Text Bar button on the Vertical Button Bar.
Figure 4.20. The Text Bar.
Any change you make on the Text Bar will apply to whatever paragraph currently contains your insertion point. If you have a selection of text that spans multiple paragraphs, the change will affect all of those paragraphs. Any formatting changes made to a paragraph governed by a named ruler (see Chapter 10) will apply to all paragraphs using that ruler.
Margins, Line Wraps, and Indents
One thing many people find puzzling is the difference between the margin and the line wrap in Nisus Writer. Lets begin by solving this mystery. As you look at the Text Bar in your document window, youll notice that just below the ruler markings is a white area with some triangular indicators at each end. These indicators show where the text will wrap to the next line, and you can move them just by clicking and dragging. But you cant move them into the gray area on either end, try as you might. The gray areas are your margins. Your paragraphs can never, ever extend into the marginsthe outer limits of your possible text area. Within the margins, however, you can set the left and right edges of your paragraphs to wrap wherever you like.
Fine, you say, but how do I adjust the margins? The margins are adjusted on the Layout Page (Figure 4.21), which you can display by clicking the
Display Layout Page button on your Vertical Button Bar. On the Layout Page, you can simply click and drag the margins to place them anywhere you like within the limits of your chosen printer. Well look at other ways to adjust the margins and other uses of the Layout Page in Chapter 7. In the meantime, just remember: margins are adjusted on the Layout Page; line wrap is adjusted in the document window.
Figure 4.21. The Layout Page. Margins and other document-wide settings are adjusted here.
Adjusting Line Wrap and Indents
To adjust the point where the right edge of your paragraph wraps, click the solid black triangle on the right edge of the Text Bar (the right line wrap indicator) and drag it to the desired location (see Figure 4.22). As you drag it, youll notice that a vertical dotted line extends down through your window. This will help you to see where text will align as you position the line wrap. You will also notice that the insertion point indicator changes to a reading in inches (or whatever your preferred unit of measurement is) of the current location of the right line wrap. When you release the mouse button, your paragraph will wrap at that point.
Figure 4.22. Changing the right line-wrap position.
On the left side of the ruler, we see two trianglesa hollow one on top and a solid one on the bottom. The bottom triangle is your left line wrap indicator. If you click and drag it, you can set your left wrap to a new position (again aided by the vertical guide line and position readout). You will also notice that the top triangle moves along with it. The top triangle is the first line indent/outdent indicator. It determines where the first line of each paragraph will begin, which may or may not be the same as the position for subsequent lines. To change this setting independent of the left line wrap, click and drag the top triangle to a new position. If the first line begins to the left of the 96 line wrap, its called an outdent. Outdents (also known as hanging indents) are commonly used for poetry and bibliographies. If the first line begins to the right of the line wrap, its an indent. If you like to indent the first line of every paragraph, you can set the indent so that this occurs automatically without requiring that you press the
Tab key every time. (Figure 4.23 shows both an indent and an outdent.) Any time you click and drag the left line wrap indicator, the indent/outdent indicator will move with it. If you want to move the left line wrap independently of the indent/outdent, press the
Shift key while dragging the line wrap indicator.
Figure 4.23. Indent (top) versus outdent (bottom).
If youd rather enter measurements for your line wraps and indent/outdent than drag them into position, double-click the left or right wrap indicator or the indent/outdent indicator to display the dialog box in Figure 4.24. If you display this dialog box while you have a selection that includes multiple rulers, you can click Make settings relative to all selected rulers to apply the same change to all of the paragraphs. Again, any change made to a paragraph governed by a named ruler (Chapter 10) will affect all paragraphs using that ruler.
Figure 4.24.The Edit Line Wrap dialog box.
Working with Tabs
Tabs allow you to align text and numbers in columns and to position material precisely on a line. A tab stop is an indicator on your ruler that shows where and how your text will align. A tab character is a (normally invisible) character that is inserted into your text when you press the
Tab key. The tab character tells Nisus Writer to move the text that follows it to the next tab stop.
Nisus Writer has five types of tab stops. Figure 4.25 shows examples of each type. The Left Tab
Tab key in a line with a forced justify tab stop, everything between the insertion point and the next return or tab character will be stretched out to reach the tab. Thus, if you want to have text on the line after the forced justify tab, you must place another tab stop after it.
Figure 4.25. Examples of different tab stops (with and without leaders).
If you have created an outdent (hanging indent) by moving the Indent/Outdent indicator to the left of the Left Line Wrap, the line wrap indicator will also function as a left tab stop. This makes it easy to create bulleted lists, for example: type a bullet (Option-8) and press the Tab key; the rest of your text will be aligned in a block. There is no need to insert a tab stop on top of the line wrap indicator.
To set a tab, click a
tab stop icon on the tab bar and drag it onto the horizontal ruler. To set multiple tab stops of the same type, click a
tab stop icon once to select it, then click once on the ruler each place you want a tab stop to appear. You can reposition a tab stop by clicking and dragging it. To remove a tab stop, simply drag it off the ruler. The pointer changes to a garbage can
Shift-click to select multiple tab stops.
If your paragraph has no tab stops set, Nisus Writer assumes default tab stops every half-inch. However, as soon as you insert a tab stop anywhere on the line, the default tabs are ignored and each tab stop must be explicitly set.
Any tab stop can have a tab leader, a series of periods or other characters leading up to the tab. Tab leaders are often found in tables of contents, and they help the eye to follow a line across the page. To set a tab stop with a leader, click the
Leader Bar before placing your tab stop. The tab will have three dots below it
Figure 4.26. The Edit Tab dialog box.
Justification refers to the way the left and right edges of your paragraph are aligned. Figure 4.27 shows the appearance of different kinds of alignment. Clicking the
Left Justify button will align the left edge of your paragraph at your left line wrap position. The
Center Justify button will center the text in each line between the left and right line wrap positions. Clicking
Right Justify will align the right edge of your paragraph with the right line wrap position. And clicking
Full Justify will align both edges flush with their respective line wraps.
Figure 4.27. Four different justification methods.
100 Line and Paragraph Spacing
The last set of controls on the Text Bar (Figure 4.28) governs the vertical spacing within and between paragraphs. These controls are grouped together because they interact in important ways. The Line Height Methods pop-down menu sets the method used to determine line and paragraph spacing.
Figure 4.28. The Text Bars line- and paragraph-spacing controls, showing the Line Height Method pop-down menu.
Auto, each lines height will be determined individually: it will increase as necessary to accommodate the tallest character in that line (see Figure 4.29). If a number is entered in the Line Height box, it will be interpreted as the minimum number of points high a line can be.
Figure 4.29. Auto, Fixed, and Line methods of determining line height.
Fixed, the exact height entered in the Line Height box will be 101 used for every line in the paragraph, regardless of how tall the characters are.
Linewill simulate typewriter spacingsort of. If youre using a 12-point font, then a setting of
1entered in the Line Height Box will be equivalent to single spacing;
2will be double spacing, and so on. The value can be changed only in half-line increments. The odd thing is that Nisus Writer does not really use a typewriter line (one-sixth of an inch) to determine your line height, but rather a value that changes based on the size of the font you are using. In other words, single spacing with a 10-point font will be less than single spacing on a typewriter, but with a 14-point font it will be more. Like
Linespacing increases as necessary to fit taller characters, but it only increases in half-line increments.
The Line Height box allows you to manually enter the measurement for the current line. If your Line Height Method is set to
Fixed, the number you enter here will be interpreted in points; if the option is
Line, the number represents a number of lines (in half-line increments). After entering a number in the box, press
Enter to apply your setting. To increase or decrease the line height (in either one-point or half-line increments), click the
Increase Line Height or
Decrease Line Height button.
Entering 0 (zero) in the Line Height box will cause the Line Height determination to become fully automatic, regardless of what method is set in the Line Height Method menu. Line height will be based entirely on the actual character sizes in the line. It is not possible to have a line whose actual height is zero points.
The Paragraph Spacing controls allow you to change the amount of space added before the paragraph. As with the Line Height controls, enter a number in the Paragraph Spacing box to use an arbitrary value; click the
Decrease button to increase or decrease the number. The value you enter in this box is added to whatever line height is in effect. So, for example, a line height of 12 points plus a paragraph spacing of 6 points will give you 18 points of space before each selected paragraph. However, if line height is set to zero (Auto), then a paragraph spacing value of 6 might not have any effect; the two numbers combined must be greater than the point size of the font being used for any effect to be visible.
Nisus Writer does not have a Space After feature; paragraph spacing is always space before the paragraph. To include space after a paragraph, you must insert a new line after the paragraph and adjust its height to achieve the desired spacing.
All the paragraph formatting information weve discussedline wrap, indent, tabs, justification, line height, and paragraph spacingis stored in whats known as a paragraph ruler (or just ruler for short). To see the paragraph rulers in your document, click the
Display Paragraph Rulers button
Figure 4.30. The document window with ruler icons displayed.
103 Changing Rulers
When you change the formatting of a paragraph that is governed by an unnamed ruler, a new ruler is automatically inserted before it to store the formatting information. In addition, a copy of the ruler that was previously in effect will be automatically inserted before the next paragraph. This copy is known as a protective rulerit protects all future paragraphs from being affected by the changes you make to your current paragraph. If you do not want a protective ruler to be inserted (i.e., you want the changes you make to your current paragraph to apply to all subsequent paragraphs governed by the same ruler), select the ruler icon before making any changes. If you have a selection that spans several paragraphs with different rulers, the first paragraphs settings will be shown on the text bar, and any changes you make will be applied to all of the selected paragraphs. However, when adjusting indents, you can move the indents of all selected paragraphs relative to the current one by holding the
Shift key while dragging the indent.
If you hold the Command key while changing the formatting of a paragraph, the changes will be applied to all paragraphs with rulers identical to the current one.
Copying and Deleting Rulers
Rulers can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted, just like text. Click a ruler icon once to select it, then choose the command you want to perform. For example, to copy all of the paragraph formatting from one paragraph to another, just copy the ruler from one paragraph, place your insertion point before the other paragraph (selecting the ruler icon that is already there, if there is one), and paste. If you delete a ruler icon, then the paragraph that follows it will take on the formatting of the previous paragraph. You cannot delete the very first ruler in your document.
Moving Paragraphs and Their Rulers
When you move a paragraph from one part of your document to another, you generally want to preserve its formatting. Because of the way Nisus Writer stores formatting in rulers, there are some things you should watch out for. If 104 you want to move a paragraph with its formatting intact, you should select not only the paragraph but the ruler icon that precedes it. However, the ruler is not copied (or moved using drag and drop) if it is the first thing in your selection. So you must select the preceding return character as well (see Figure 4.31)making the ruler the second character in your selection. Likewise, avoid selecting the return character after the paragraph youre moving, so that you dont inadvertently move an extra ruler with your text.
Figure 4.31. When you copy or move a paragraph, select the range shown to include the current ruler (but not the following ruler). Before pasting, position the insertion point at the end of the line preceding the location where you want the paragraph to appear.
If a given paragraph is governed by a ruler that appears several paragraphs above it, theres no way to copy that ruler along with the paragraph. (Even if you noncontiguously select the ruler icon, it wont be copied to the Clipboard.) First, copy the ruler icon from its original location and paste it in front of the paragraph you want to move. Then make a selection that includes the newly pasted ruler as above.
Headers and Footers
A header is a special text area that displays across the top of each page; a footer displays across the bottom of the page. 105 Headers and footers are typically used to hold information like page number, document name, and the date. Headers and footers are created in essentially the same way. Choose
Footer from the Insert menu, and the Headers & Footers window (Figure 4.32) will appear. Type your header or footer here (using the same formatting controls you use in your document window), and close the window. The header or footer you just created will appear on every page of your document from that point on.
Figure 4.32. The Headers & Footers window, showing the Header/Footer menu.
To edit a header or footer, you can either double-click it in your document or click the
Display Headers/Footers button on your Horizontal Button Bar to open the Headers & Footers window. While the Headers & Footers window is open, the Header/Footer menu (see Figure 4.32) will appear on your menu bar. To make the header or footer appear only on the odd or even pages of your document, choose
Odd Pages or
Even Pages from this menu. If you choose
All Pages, it will appear on both even and odd pages. To delete the header or footer, choose
Delete Header or
Delete Footer from the menu. Choosing
Go to Reference takes you back to the point in your document where the header or footer was inserted.
Your document can have multiple headers and footersa different one on each page, if you like. After inserting your first header or footer, place your insertion point on the page on which you want the new one to begin, and again choose
Footer from the Insert menu. The new header or footer will appear on all subsequent pages of your document (unless superseded by a new one). Each page can display only one header and one footer. If you insert multiple headers or footers on a page, only the first header, or the last footer, will be used.
106 To see where in your document headers and footers have been inserted, click the
Display Header/Footer Icons button
Copyfrom the Edit menu.
Shiftkey and choose
Swap Pastefrom the Edit menu.
Pastefrom the Edit menu.
Footnotes and Endnotes
You can insert footnotes or endnotes at any point in your document. They are automatically numbered and can be edited, moved, or deleted at any time. To insert a footnote or endnote at your insertion point, choose
Footnote/Endnote from the Insert menu. A reference number will appear in your text, and the Notes for
window will open (Figure 4.33). Type your note here, and when youre finished, close the window or click the
Edit Document button on the Horizontal Button Bar. To edit notes youve already entered, double-click the footnote (or its reference number) in your document window, or click the
Display Footnotes/Endnotes button on the Horizontal Button Bar. When the Notes for
window is open, a Notes menu (Figure 4.33) appears on your menu bar, giving you 107 access to note placement and formatting controls. Choose
Go to Reference from this menu to go back to the point in your document where the current footnote was inserted.
Figure 4.33. The Notes for window, showing the Notes menu.
Nisus Writer places notes at the bottom of each page by default (footnotes), but you can opt to have them placed at the end of your document instead (endnotes). You cant have both footnotes and endnotes in the same document. To change the placement of your notes, choose
Note Placement from the Notes menu (or double-click a footnote separator line in your document) to display the dialog box shown in Figure 4.34. Choose either
Footnotes selected, the following Footnotes options are available:
Figure 4.34. The Note Placement dialog box.
Place at Bottom of Pagecauses your footnotes to hug the bottom margin; when this is unchecked, footnotes will appear immediately below the last line of text on the page.
Dont Break Across Pageskeeps each footnote together; if it cant fit on a single page without breaking, it is moved to the next page. When this is unchecked, footnotes that dont completely fit on one page will be continued on the next page. When this is checked,
May Separate from Referenceis also checked.
May Separate from Referencesays that Nisus Writer can, if necessary, put a reference number on one page and the note that goes with it on the next page. When this is unchecked, footnotes will always begin on the same page as their references.
Renumber on Each Pageis not available when this option is checked.
Renumber on Each Pagerestarts footnote numbering at 1 on every page when checked.
Do not Exceed X% of Pagelets you put a limit on how much of your page footnotes can occupy. When this is checked,
May Separate from Referenceis also checked.
Document - Footnotes: box allows you to enter the vertical distance from the bottom of your text to the top of your first footnote. Your separator line will be centered vertically in this space. Next to
Separator Line - Margin enter the horizontal distance from the margin to the separator line. Below that, the Separator Line options let you choose the length of the separator line in points (enter
0 if you dont want a line) and whether it is left- or right-justified.
from the Notes menu to display the dialog box shown in Figure 4.35. This allows you to set numbering and reference options. Choose
This Note Only to change the options for just the note the insertion point is in, or click
All New Notes to make the settings you choose here the new default.
Automatic numbering causes each footnote to be con-109secutively numbered (and the numbers update automatically when footnotes are moved, added, or deleted). When
Manual is checked, whatever number you enter in the
Start at: box will be the number for your current footnote, but all footnotes that appear after it will be consecutively numbered from that point (unless they, too, have been overridden with a manual number). The bottom two boxes specify how reference symbols will appear both
In the Document and
In the Notes. The
Superscript checkbox at the bottom applies the Superscript style to whatever symbol you choose. Click one of the first three options for plain numbers or numbers in brackets or parentheses. Choose
* to use an asterisk as a reference symbolnote that this is a superscripted asterisk, so youll want to uncheck
Superscript if you use this option.
None will give you a footnote with no reference symbol; to use another character of your own choice, enter it in the Other: box.
Figure 4.35. The Note Symbols dialog box.
Working with Footnotes
When you insert a footnote, the font size of the note is automatically reduced to 5/6 of the size used in your document. So if the body of your document is in a 12-point font, your footnotes will be 10 points. You can change the size manually, but you will have to do so for each new footnote indi-110vidually. Regardless of what size your text is, though, the return character that appears automatically at the end of every note is 12 points in size. When the Line Height Method is set to
Auto, each line will stretch to fit the tallest character. So if your footnote text is 10 points (or smaller), guess what? Your last line will be too tall! Worse yet, theres no way to select that return character individually to give it a new size. There are two solutions to this problem. One is to set the Line Height Method to
Fixed; this will make all lines equal in height. However, if you do need
Auto spacing, theres still a solution. With your Notes for
window visible, choose
Select All from the Edit menu, and then choose
10 from the Size menu to change the size of everything in your footnotesincluding the return charactersto 10 points. (If you want to affect the return character without changing the rest of your note, you can use PowerFind (Chapter 11) to replace all return characters in the Notes for
window with a smaller size.)
There are a few other things to keep in mind when working with footnotes and endnotes. First, each new footnote has a tab character inserted before the reference number. You can delete this tab manually if you want to (or write a macro to do it for you), but theres no way to keep it from appearing in the first place. Second, while all your standard editing tools (spelling checker, thesaurus, Find/Replace, etc.) are available while editing footnotes, they will not be able to see into your footnotes when used from your document window. And finally, when you have
Endnotes selected, they will always be placed at the very end of your document. For a solution that will let you put something (say, a bibliography) after your endnotes, see Chapter 15.
To check the spelling in your document, choose
from the Tools menu. The spelling checker will immediately begin checking your document, and the 111 spelling checker window (Figure 4.36) will appear. When it comes to a word it doesnt recognize, it will display that word in the top box labeled
Misspelled Word. In the Suggestions box will be a list of any words in the dictionary that are spelled similarly to the unrecognized word. (If you dont want to have suggestions listed, uncheck the box.) The word at the top of the listthe one the spelling checker thinks is most likely what you meant to usewill be shown in the
Replace With: box. To replace the word in your document with the suggested word, click
Replace. If you want to use one of the other suggested words, just double-click it (or click once to select it and then click
Replace). If none of the suggested words is the one you want, you can type your own word in the
Replace With: box and then click
Replace. To replace every instance of the misspelled word in your document with the word in the
Replace With: box, click
Replace All. After you replace a word, the spelling checker automatically looks for the next misspelled word.
Figure 4.36. The spelling checker window.
If the spelling checker has found a word that is almost spelled correctly but doesnt produce the correct alternative, click the word in the Misspelled Word box and it will be copied to the Replace With: box where you can edit it.
Skip and Ignore
If the spelling checker stops on a word but you dont want to replace it, click
Skip. The spelling checker will overlook it and continue on to the next misspelled word. However, the next time you run the spelling checker, it will stop at that word again. If you click
Skip All, then any occurrence of the word in any document will be skipped. Nisus Writer remem-112bers which words have been skipped until you quit (or load a different dictionary). The next time you launch the program, the word will once again be caught by the spelling checker. If youd like to mark the word so that the spelling checker never again stops on it again (even if you quit Nisus Writer), click
Ignore to apply the
Ignore Spelling style to the word. Words marked with
Ignore Spelling are never flagged by the spelling checker. To apply the
Ignore Spelling style to every instance of the selected word in your document, press the
Option key and
In addition to looking for spelling errors, the spelling checker looks for lowercase letters following a period (which it takes to be words beginning a sentence that should be capitalized) and repeated words. The spelling checker also stops on words followed or separated by an ellipsis (this that), which is almost universally annoying!
The User Dictionary
If the misspelled word is really spelled correctly, but just is not in the built-in dictionary, you can add it to your User Dictionary, which is used in combination with the Spelling Dictionary to check your document. To add the selected word to the User Dictionary, click
Add. You can edit your User Dictionary in one of two ways. When you click
Edit User Dictionary, the contents of the user dictionary are displayed in your spelling checker window (Figure 4.37); you can select a term and click
Remove to delete it or type in a new term and click
Add to add it. If you click
Edit in Window, your user dictionary will be opened for editing in an ordinary text window. You do not have to enter words in alphabetical order; the spelling checker will sort them automatically when the window is closed. You are free to create as many user dictionaries as you like, though only one can be loaded at a time. To create a new user dictionary, click
Figure 4.37. The spelling checker window with
Edit User Dictionary checked.
113 If you have a list of words that youd like to add to your User Dictionary en masse, simply select the list, copy it, and paste it into the User Dictionary text window.
While you can use the spelling checker within header/footer and footnote windows, it does not check these areas when run from your main document window.
Spelling Checker Options
The upper-right corner of the spelling checker window lists the language used for spell checking and the current Spelling Dictionary and User Dictionary. If youve purchased an extra dictionary for another language or for legal, medical, or technical terms, you can open it using the
command or the Catalog, and its name will be displayed here. To change which dictionaries are loaded by default, choose
from the Preferences submenu of the File menu. You can have only one Main Dictionary and one User Dictionary loaded at a time.
If you check your spelling and then leave the spelling checker window open while editing your document, the
Start button will be enabled, allowing you to perform another spelling check. If you have a range of text selected when you choose
Start), the spelling checker will only check words in that selection. You must click to deselect any text before checking any other part of your document. To check the spelling of a single word manually, type it into the
Replace With: box and click the 4 button.
You can actually check your spelling without displaying the spelling checker window! If you press the Shift key while clicking on the Tools menu, Check Spelling becomes Find Next Error. Choose this command and Nisus Writer will jump to the next unrecognized word.
To look up a word in Nisus Writers thesaurus, select the word and choose
from the Tools menu. The thesaurus widow (Figure 4.38) will open. It gives a brief definition of the word (multiple definitions are divided by part of speech) along with synonyms, related words (rel), antonyms (ant), contrasting words (con), and words to compare with the original (cmp). Synonyms are shown with the same capitalization and tense as the original word.
Figure 4.38. The thesaurus window.
To replace your original word with one of the thesaurus entries, double-click the word you want in the thesaurus (or click once to select it and then click
Replace). Clicking a word once copies it to the box labeled
Next, meaning the next word that will be looked up. To look up a word that you have copied or typed into that box, click
Lookup. The Current pop-up menu lists the last ten words that were looked up, so you can return to an earlier entry quickly.
114 As with the spelling checker, the current language and thesaurus name are indicated in the top right corner of the window. You can obtain additional thesauri and open them just like any other document, or choose a different default thesaurus using the
command on the Preferences submenu of the File menu. Only one thesaurus file can be open at a time.
Nisus Writer can automatically hyphenate any or all of the text in your document. The
Hyphenate command on the Tools menu can be thought of as a styleany text with the
Hyphenate style applied will be hyphenated if necessary, and if you choose
Hyphenate with no text selected, hyphenation will apply to whatever text is typed at the insertion point. A check mark next to the
Hyphenate command tells you that hyphenation is active for the selected text. A word in the
Hyphenate style will only be hyphenated if it falls at the end of a line and if wrapping it to the following line would produce a large gap. To turn off hyphenation, select the range of text you dont want to be hyphenated, and choose
Hyphenate again to remove the style.
As with the spelling checker and thesaurus, hyphenation depends on a language-specific hyphenation file. Unlike the spelling checker and thesaurus, this file consists of a set of rules for hyphenating rather than a dictionary. You can override 115 these rules if you want hyphenation to take place at a particular point in your word. To do this, insert a soft hyphen at the point youd like the word to break by pressing
Command-hyphen. A soft hyphen is invisible, but it tells Nisus Writer that this is a suitable breaking point if the word falls at the end of a line.
Word Count from the Tools menu will display the number of words in your document and many other statistics (Figure 4.39). Youll get a tally of characters, words, sentences, and so on not only for the document youre working on but for all open documents as well. If you have WorldScript installed, the Word Count dialog box will give you additional information about non-Roman characters used in your document (see Chapter 13 for details).
Figure 4.39. The Word Count dialog box.
In addition to the other statistics, Word Count indicates the Flesch Reading Ease score for your document and its Reading Grade Level. These scores are designed to give you an indication of how easy your document is to read. The Flesch Reading Ease score is a number from 0 to 100, with 100 being 116 easiest to read and 0 being hardest. It is computed using a standardized algorithm that takes into account the average sentence length and average number of syllables per word. The Reading Grade Level tells you what level of education is needed to read the text in your document. The range is 1 (first grade; easiest) to 19 (third year graduate school; hardest).
To get a feel for just what these scores mean and how reliable they are, I performed a Word Count on several short texts. The results are shown in Table 4.1. Because the texts were so short, this may not be a reliable indication of how accurate the tests are, but it will help you to see how some of the rules work (and have a bit of fun, too). And in case you were wondering, this book has a Flesch Reading Ease of 54 and a Reading Grade Level of 12.
Flesch Reading Ease
Reading Grade Level
See Spot run.
See Dick and Jane run.
See Alexander and Penelope run.
See to it that Alexander and
Row, row, row your boat
Propel, propel, propel your craft,
Table 4.1. Flesch Reading Ease and Reading Grade Level scores for sample texts.
While the Word Count command is fast and gives plenty of information, it doesnt do something that a lot of people needcount the words in a given selection. The Count Words in Selection macro on the enclosed CD-ROM adds this feature to Nisus Writer.
After many years of customer requests, the Word Count feature will now give you statistics for the current selection, in addition to statistics for the entire document.
If you made it through this entire chapter alive, congratulations! You are now a Word Processor. You know how to get around in Nisus Writers document window, and youve learned the basics of entering, editing, and formatting text. Words, however, are only part of your Nisus Writer document. Graphics (including tables and equations), movies, and sounds are an integral part of the program and can add a great deal of richness and appeal to your documents. In Chapter 5, we explore the graphical elements you can include in your document, and in Chapter 6 well cover Nisus Writers unique sound features.
Copyright © 1995, 1996, 1999 by Joe Kissell
< Section II | Next Chapter >